Coffee is so bitter, why do so many people still love it?

Coffee is so bitter, why do so many people still love it?

According to media reports, a new study found that people who are particularly sensitive to the bitter taste of coffee actually drink more coffee. This may sound counter-intuitive, but the researchers pointed out in a paper published online in the journal Scientific Reports on November 5 that this sensitivity is not only a matter of taste, but also affected by a person’s genes. The influence of composition.

“You might think that people who are particularly sensitive to the bitter taste of caffeine drink less,” said the study author Marilyn Cornelis, an assistant professor of preventive medicine at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. The statement said, “Our research results are exactly the opposite, which shows that coffee consumers have acquired a caffeine-specific taste, or the ability to perceive (bitterness) through the positive enhancement of caffeine-induced acquisition.”

In other words, those who can taste the bitterness of coffee, especially the unique bitterness of caffeine, have learned to associate this taste with “good things”, and therefore prefer coffee. The researchers said that this finding was surprising, because bitterness is often used as a warning mechanism to persuade people to spit out harmful substances.

The study was led by Jue Sheng Ong, a PhD student in the Department of Genetics and Computational Biology at QIMR Bergauver Institute of Medical Research in Australia. He said the purpose of the study is to understand how genetic factors affect a person’s consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol. These beverages tend to have a bitter taste.

“Although all the bitterness seems to be indistinguishable, we can clearly distinguish the bitterness of Brussels sprouts, tonic water, and caffeine,” said Jue Sheng Ong. “We found that the degree of perception of these bitterness depends in part on your genes. .”

In order to study the decisive genes, the researchers analyzed the genetic makeup and daily consumption of bitter beverages of more than 400,000 British people. “Using genes related to the ability to taste bitterness, we evaluated whether people who are genetically more sensitive to bitterness tend to drink tea rather than coffee,” said Jue Sheng Ong.

The analysis results show that people with genes that are sensitive to the bitter taste of green vegetables (such as Brussels sprouts) or quinine water are more inclined to drink tea than coffee. In other words, people who are more sensitive to the bitter taste of quinine and green vegetables tend to avoid coffee. The study also found that people who are genetically more sensitive to the bitter taste of Brussels sprouts do not like to drink, especially red wine. This discovery may help scientists study the problem of alcohol addiction.

Jue Sheng Ong pointed out that they did not analyze the flavoring agents that people often pour into coffee, such as milk and sugar. “As you can imagine, on a personal level, there are too many factors that determine how much coffee a person drinks — socioeconomic status, the ability to metabolize caffeine, and smoking, etc.,” he said. “The most important thing is that people will Drink a variety of coffees-black coffee, Fuli white, cappuccino, etc.” Therefore, the researchers chose to look for the general trend of how genes are associated with bitter beverage consumption.

“These results indicate that perhaps most coffee types still have very similar bitterness characteristics,” Jue Sheng Ong concluded.

Ten things you should know about coffee

Ten things you should know about coffee

Caffeine can be deadly

Despite the well-known benefits, coffee can also be fatal. However, health experts say that the fatal premise is that you drink 80 to 100 cups of coffee in a hurry. We suggest not to try. In September 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned of the hazards of caffeine powder, a powerful refreshing product that has become popular in recent years.

Benefits of coffee

A large number of independent studies conducted in 2014, 2015 and 2016 showed that coffee is beneficial to the human liver, which may reduce the risk of heart disease and lower the risk of colon cancer, and as the paper in the journal Circulation claims , Drinking 1 to 5 cups of coffee a day may generally reduce the risk of premature death. A study published in March 2016 found that coffee can reduce the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Caffeine may stimulate women’s libido

At least it is effective in mice. However, researchers say that in humans, coffee may only enhance the sexual experience of non-habitual drinkers.

Caffeine may relieve pain

A small study found that the right amount of caffeine-equivalent to twice the content of coffee-can relieve muscle soreness after fitness. However, this study was conducted on people who do not drink coffee regularly. A 2012 study found that those who drank coffee before working at the desk had less neck and shoulder pain. However, in a study with a sufficiently large sample, no definite conclusions can be drawn on this possibility.

Caffeine will keep you awake at night

Health experts recommend that you avoid drinking coffee within 6 hours before going to bed because the effect of caffeine can last for several hours. A 2015 study found that caffeine may disturb your body’s biological clock and confuse sleep time signals. Another study found that coffee that night shift workers drink during working hours may affect their sleep during the day.

Decaffeinated coffee also has coffee

That’s right! A study found that if you drink 5 to 10 cups of decaf coffee, your final caffeine intake is equivalent to 1 to 2 cups of regular coffee.

Chemicals are used when decaffeinating

Steam the coffee beans in water for about 30 minutes to allow the dissolved caffeine to float to the surface. At this time, use organic solvents such as methylene chloride to rinse off the caffeine.

Caffeine is not the main source of bitterness

Caffeine is not the main bitter substance in coffee. On the contrary, the “culprit” causing bitterness is antioxidants.

Good coffee depends on roasting and brewing

When it comes to taste issues, the chemistry of coffee can be boiled down to two aspects: roasting and brewing. During the roasting process, the fat locked in the coffee beans oozes out at about 200 degrees Celsius. The more fat, the stronger the flavor. The longer the time the water is in contact with coffee grounds, the caffeine content will increase, so the caffeine content of regular coffee is usually higher than that of espresso and cappuccino. Deep roasting can also produce more caffeine.

Coffee was discovered by goats

Legend has it that a thousand years ago, on a hillside in Africa, a group of goats became so excited after eating red coffee berries that they did not sleep all night. The shepherd told some monks about the goat’s discovery, and then prayed for a long time. In any case, this is a good story.

A study showed that most of the antioxidants that Americans get come from coffee they drink every day. Drinking one or two cups of coffee a day seems very beneficial. If you don’t like coffee, you can also try black tea, which is the second largest source of antioxidants. Other foods rich in antioxidants include bananas, dried beans and corn.

Bartenders | Bartenders at home, just use these!

Unconsciously, I have been learning bartending for more than 4 years, and I have successively purchased a lot of bartending equipment. Let me share with you friends here.

Essential tools (with them, you can basically mix drinks)

Snow Kettle: divided into three-stage and two-stage. The three-stage style is more delicate, and the two-stage style is also called Boston. It can be mixed with fruit puree, egg white, cream and other things that are not easy to mix. In fact, for beginners, the Mason Cup can also be shaken, just close the lid and shake it lightly.

Ice strainer: It is useless for the three-stage type, but the two-stage type does not have a filter (it only has two cups), which is a must. The spring on the side is removed and thrown into the snow bottle can also help to mix the wine containing egg white and cream.

Measuring cup: How much juice, wine, and syrup are put in the cocktail. Generally, the products without measuring cups are only seen in restaurants and bars, and they are not expected.

Bartenders tools

Advanced tools (It looks like you are professional)

Bar spoon: There are not only shaking methods, but also blending methods. To put it simply, use a spoon to stir in the cup. When the spoon is against the wall of the cup, the handle will rotate. The thread of the bar spoon is more advantageous. And some wines will use a bar spoon as the unit of measurement, such as two spoons of sugar. .

Juicer: It is divided into Mexican style (like Mexican sombrero) and pressing style. Pressing and squeezing juice is fast, but when squeezing yellow lemon, it is easy to squeeze into the white sac between the skin and the flesh, forming a bitter taste. Mexican style does not have this Kind of trouble.

Liquor spout: It makes it easier to control the amount of wine poured out of the bottle. Most of the bars are inserted into the more used wine, and the high-end wine is basically not used. There are also some variants (the deer head of Yege)

Pounding: mashing mint leaves, sugar cubes, lime wedges…convenient and hygienic. I always use a rolling pin when I don’t have it.

Filter spoon: If the wine contains fruit puree, pomace, and broken plants, filter it with a filter spoon when pouring it from the Snow Kettle into the cup. The wine can be thick, but it must be clear.

Ice tongs: for icing ice cubes. This one is relatively unpopular. It seems that we all acquiesce that the bartender’s hands are clean and disinfected by 24 times… Most bars use shovel, I mostly use hands…

High-level tools

Bitter essence bottle: used to hold bitter essence. The unit of measurement for bitter essence is drops. The mouth of this bottle has only one small hole, which can control how many drops are added.

Ginger rub: rub the broken pieces and shake in a pot to increase the flavor of the wine. I only rubbed ginger and cinnamon sticks, and finally poured out and remembered to filter.

Iron skewers: insert olives, orange peels, fruit… it’s better to make a plate with a layered feel. Most bars use disposable bamboo sticks.

Goblet of Fire: Pour the ignited liquor between the two glasses. The bottom of the cup is very wide and can be used to cover the wine in another cup. The heated wine has a stronger aroma and a lower alcohol content. The most important thing is that it looks good when lit!

Filter spoon: Only used in two situations… One is to put a sugar cube in the mouth of the cup, pour it with spirits and light it to let the saccharification drip slowly. The other is when drinking absinthe, the absinthe is 75 degrees, and few people accept it directly. Just put a piece of sugar in the mouth of the cup, and use the tap to drip the ice water. After it melts, it will gradually fade. It’s easy to enter.

The mutual sympathy between wine and cigar: What wine is more versatile with cigar?

When you open a bottle of fine wine from the south of France, or a bottle of red wine from Bordeaux Pauillac, you may be surprised to find that the wine contains rich tobacco and smoky aromas. These tobacco aromas are cleverly mixed with fruity aromas. The spice smell produces a very charming taste, not only the spicy tobacco, but also the complexity and softness of wine. This fact negates some doubts, such as the taste of cigars that conflict with complex wines, and the time for wine tasting should be non-smoking.

Generally speaking, people think that sweet wines are more suitable for cigars. Because the trace amounts of tar and nicotine in cigars melt into your bloodstream, they will quietly take away part of your blood sugar, so your body will relax and feel slightly tired. The best enjoyment at this time is to add something sweet. But dry cakes and chocolates are far less effective than a cup of round sweet wine. Therefore, many people like to pair cigars with rich noble rot sweet white wine. Usually this kind of wine is sweet and greasy in a small glass, but when it is used as a cigar, the sweetness and the bitterness of the cigar will complement each other, making the cigar taste more mellow.

With spirits and cigars, the taste is usually more exciting. In particular, some sweet-tasting spirits, such as aged Scotch whisky, cognac and old rum, can be paired with cigars to create a unique style. When you choose these spirits to pair with a cigar, there is an important rule: the longer the wine is aged in oak barrels, the more suitable for cigars. Because oak barrels give the spirits toasting and vanilla flavors, all they can make the cigar taste richer and more aftertaste. If you add a few pieces of ice to the glass, the effect will be better. The cold body can offset the heat of the cigar and make the cigar more comfortable to smoke.

In addition to the above sweet wines and spirits, there are some fortified wines in between that are regarded as a perfect match for cigars. For example, sweet sherry in Spain and sweet port in Portugal. They are all blended and aged from sweet wine and brandy. They have a rich taste of wine and are stronger than ordinary wines. In the smoking rooms of British gentlemen, there is usually a port or sherry filter. Many people think they are the best partners for cigars.

Fashion from Japan-Whiskey and Cigar

Fashion from Japan-Whiskey and Cigar

In China, many people like to have a single malt whisky when they smoke cigars. This kind of collocation is considered very fashionable in Beijing and Shanghai, and everyone believes it is a very sophisticated British style. In fact, this is a misunderstanding. Although Britain produces whiskey, cigars and whiskey come from Hong Kong and Taiwan, and the source is Japan. Of course, this is a good way to match, especially the aged single malt whisky with Cuban cigars, both of which are worthy of being tasted slowly and are extremely delicate. Some people like to dip a cigar in whiskey and then light it up for a more intense taste. This is also a good way to taste cigars.

British tradition-Port wine with cigar

British tradition-Port wine with cigar

In many English-style cigar bars, you will see a peculiar filter. It is used to filter a sweet port wine. This sweet wine with sediment from Portugal is often the first choice for the British to pair with cigars. This custom comes from the Iberian Peninsula, and the Portuguese and Spaniards were the earliest practitioners of cigar pairing. For them, smoking a cigar is naturally accompanied by a glass of sweet port wine (or Spanish sweet sherry). This custom quickly infected the British, and until now, they are more keen on pairing port wine and sherry with cigars than Scotch whiskey.

The new trend-noble rot sweet wine with cigar

Noble rot wine is also one of the wonderful products to match with cigars. In the International Sommelier Competition held at the 15th Havana Cigar Festival this year, British contestant Peter Debrontai used Royal Tokaj This cigar finally reached the final. Some people describe noble rot wine that tastes like honey, and the sweet taste is exactly what many eggplanters seek. Tokaj Noble Rot is a very precious sweet wine from Hungary. It is made from grapes infected with special mold and has a strange moldy aroma.

It is said that the city of Tokaj was under the siege of the Turkish Empire in 1650, which caused the delayed harvest of the grapes, which were infected with mold and showed a semi-rotted and shriveled state. A Hungarian wine farmer used this grape to make an unusual sweet wine, which is now Tokaj noble rot. Some cigar enthusiasts describe the aroma of this sweet wine as “blistered dead wood aroma”. When it is added to a good cigar that is aged in place, it will bring people an extraordinary enjoyment.

The new trend-noble rot sweet wine with cigar

Leisurely style-old rum with cigar

80% of the world’s cigars are produced in Cuba. In this cigar mecca, you will often see local fishermen lighting a cigar at the seaside jetty while sipping rum in the sea breeze. Rum is a spirit brewed from sugar cane. After aging in oak barrels, it will have a charming vanilla flavor. The taste is easy-going and soft. Caribbean residents like to use it with cigars. Unlike cognac and single malt whisky, aged rum paired with cigars looks very casual and leisurely.

Rum is also a very common cocktail ingredient. Hemingway’s favorite cocktails, “Mojito” and “Daigiri”, are all made with rum. A sweet fruit cocktail with a rum tune, and a cigar will also have a good effect.

French exquisite style-Cognac with cigar

Through the expansion of Remy Martin and Martell in the world, the way of collocation of cognac with cigars began to become popular all over the world. Cognac brandy has a rich fruity aroma, sweet and round in the mouth, which can neutralize the spicy and dry taste of the cigar and make the cigar more rich. Especially the aged Cognac, because of its long aftertaste, it is especially suitable for collocation with good quality cigars. If aged whiskey and cigars show masculinity, cognac and cigars show even more exquisite beauty.

How does wine pair with cigars?

Cigars also have enemies in the wine world. They are red wines with heavy tannins and complex taste. When the strongness of the cigar meets the tannins, the astringency will be amplified and the taste of the cigar will become non-soft. Therefore, when smoking cigars, it is not appropriate to pair with too expensive red wine, otherwise it is a waste of behavior.

From the opposite perspective, white wines without tannins and rosés with weak tannins are actually more suitable for cigars. They not only enrich the aroma of cigars, but also cool and humidify your dry and hot mouth.

TIPS: When is the best time to pair cigars with wine?

Cigar smoking is relatively fixed, usually after meals. Cigar smoking at this time will make gastrointestinal peristalsis smoother and promote human digestion. This is why most people like to smoke cigars after meals. Drinking spirits after meals is also a common life habit of Europeans, because spirits also help digestion. So a cigar with a small glass of spirits after a meal is a kind of enjoyment that is beneficial to the body.

TIPS: Can Coke go with cigars?

You can even choose to match Coke with cigars, which is not without scientific basis. The large amount of sugar in cola will replenish the blood sugar that is quietly lost by smoking cigars in the eggplant guest. When you are enjoying a 500 yuan Cohiba, it would be a good idea if you don’t consider that such a combination will attract heavenly things. The match.

However, the combination of various cigars and fine wines is an intricate exploration game for cigars. There is no standard answer, as long as you find a combination that makes your taste comfortable.

What is a good vintage for red wine?

Speaking of the topic of wine vintage, it is quite complicated. So far I haven’t found an article that can explain this issue clearly. To clarify the vintage, it may be specific to the country, production area, village, winery or even specific wine types, and it is often impossible to generalize. Just ask some questions below, and you will know how complicated this question is.


Q: Is 1982 a good year?
A: Wrong, the Lafite in 1982 has excellent quality and has become a legendary wine passed down by word of mouth. So many people think that 1982 must be a top vintage, and the wines produced in 1982 are all good wines. Is it really? ’82 is a good vintage for Bordeaux, but it is not necessarily a good vintage for Burgundy, for Champagne, for Tuscany, and for Napa Valley. The climatic conditions in different countries and different producing areas are different. The so-called sunrise in the east and rain in the west, and the quality of grapes produced in the same year all over the world is the same, that is absolutely impossible.

Q: Was Bordeaux in 1982 all good wines?
A: Wrong, the wine produced in Pauillac Village in 1982 is of high quality, like Lafite and Mouton are top vintages. But Margaux and Graf are not as good as they want. So Da Lafite in 1982 is valuable, but Da Margaux in 1982 is not expensive.

Q: The red wine in Pauillac Village in 1982 was very good, so the white wine was just as good?
A: Wrong, red wine and white wine have different climate requirements. Red wine needs a hotter climate for the grapes to reach perfect maturity, while white wine prefers cool weather, so that white wine will be amazing acidity. Therefore, the white wines produced in many poor vintages in Bordeaux are exceptional.

Q: Will a bad year be a bad year?
A: It’s wrong with Burgundy in 2012. It encountered the worst planting season (frost, hail, storm, rain, sun, mold, and some decay), and the harvest was extremely low. However, the surviving grapes showed exceptionally tenacious vitality, making the 2012 Burgundy red wine a high-quality vintage in recent years.

Q: Good vintage wines are of better quality because they are more expensive?
A: Wrong with the good vintages of the Bordeaux century like 2009. Bordeaux is generally of high quality, so the overall price has also risen. Even small wineries can sell at high prices. But there are thousands of wineries in Bordeaux, can you expect them to produce the same quality as Lafite? A mediocre winemaker sometimes spoils a lot of good grapes, so you might buy a expensive but mediocre wine.

Q: It is impossible to produce top-quality wines in poor vintages?
A: It’s wrong that the overall quality of Bordeaux in 2008 is not particularly good, but the first-class villages of this year still maintained a very high standard. Therefore, for ordinary consumers, pay more attention to the good wine produced in ordinary years, and it is possible to pick up cheap and good products.

Q: For wines from the same winery, expensive vintages are better than cheaper vintages?
A: The price of the wrong wine sometimes depends not only on the quality, but also changes in the market and the decrease in output will cause price fluctuations. For example, the price of Bordeaux 2012 has fallen sharply. Some wines may be half cheaper than 2007, but their quality is much better. The 2013 vintage of Burgundy is not a particularly good vintage, but because the production is too small, the winery can only sell at a higher price in order not to lose money.

Q: Can a good vintage be stored for a long time?
A: The storage time of the wrong wine depends on many factors: tannin, acidity, sugar, etc. Based on different characteristics, wines from different producing regions have different aging potentials. Like Lafite in 1982, it can be aged for decades and still maintain high quality, but maybe the products of the small winery next to his house have begun to decline after 10 years of aging. And Nebbiolo, like Barolo, Italy, can be easily aged for decades without deterioration even if the vintage is weak.

Q: Wines of good vintages cannot be drunk right away, must they be drunk after several years of aging?
A: Wrongly like Bordeaux red wine, most of which have heavy tannins. When you drink it when you are young, it often looks sour and hard to eat. It needs to be aged for a few years before drinking. But red wines like Burgundy and Napa Valley have softer tannins and can be drunk when you are young. At this time, the fruity aroma in the wine will be more fresh and rich.

Q: Will the wine of the old vintage be more mellow than the new vintage?
A: The wrong wine is alive, but there will also be youth, prime of life, old age and even death. Some wines are suitable for drinking at a young age, even if they are left for a long time, they will not get better. Even Lafite in 1982 has entered its peak in recent years. If you don’t drink it, it will go downhill and continue to depreciate. Therefore, drinking a wine while it is at its peak is the best way to get back the price.

Q: New World wines are not greatly affected by the vintage?
A: The wrong statement has been wrong for a long time, mainly because the New World wines are mostly single-variety, and it seems that there is little difference in taste every year. In the old world, mostly blended wines, the blending ratio often changes greatly every year according to the climate and the growth of the grapes, resulting in great differences in the taste of wines in different years. So it seems that the old world has changed a lot, but in fact, the influence of vintage on the quality of wine is the same.

Q: When buying all wines, consumers need to pay attention to the vintage?
A: Wrong. In fact, for ordinary consumers, 99% of daily table wines do not need to pay attention to the year. Large quantities of modern industrial products can maintain a relatively consistent quality through scientific quality control methods. Moreover, wines that are generally consumed daily do not need to be aged, but should be consumed as soon as possible while they are fresh. Only when you use wine as a collection or investment, you need to pay special attention to the vintage.

So which production areas? Which vintages are worth collecting? Let’s take a look at the year information of the world’s major producing areas from 1980 to 2017. Before 1980, most of the wines were not suitable for drinking and had no reference value, except for some top wineries. Many of the wines in 2018 have not yet been on the market and are currently not well received.

Refer to the WA producing area score (as of April 2020) and select top vintages & excellent vintages, which are only representative of the average level. There will still be differences between individual wineries. There are occasional top wines in ordinary vintages, and top vintages are hard to guarantee. The perineal ditch capsized.
The dry red top vintages of Saint-Julian/Pouillac/St Esteve Village on the left bank of Bordeaux, France: 1982, 1990, 1996, 2000, 2009, 2010, 2016 Excellent vintages: 1985, 1986, 1989, 1995, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2014, 2015, 2017
France Bordeaux Left Bank Margaux Village Dry Red Top Years: 2005, 2009, 2016
Excellent years: 1983, 1986, 1990, 2000, 2008, 2010, 2014, 2015, 2017
France, the left bank of Bordeaux, Graf/Pesa Creole, France, dry red top vintage:
2000, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2015, 2016 outstanding years: 1985, 1990, 1998, 2008, 2012, 2014, 2017
France Bordeaux right bank Pomerol producing area Dry red top vintage: 1982, 1989, 1990, 1998, 2009, 2015, 2016
Excellent years: 1983, 1995, 2000, 2001, 2005, 2006, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2017
France, Bordeaux right bank, Saint-Emilion production area, dry red top vintage: 1990, 1998, 2000, 2005
Excellent years: 1982, 2001, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016
France Bordeaux, Basac/Sou Dai, sweet white top vintage: 1988, 1990, 2005, 2009
Excellent years: 1986, 1989, 2001, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
France Burgundy Night Hill producing area Dry red top vintage: 2005, 2010, 2015, 2016
Excellent years: 1990, 1995, 1999, 2002, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2017
France Burgundy Borne Hill production area Dry red top vintage: 2005, 2015
Excellent years: 1990, 1999, 2002, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2016
France Burgundy dry white top vintage: 2014, 2017
Excellent years: 1995, 1996, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2015
France North Rhone Valley Rotich/Hermitage Dry red top vintage: 2003, 2009, 2010, 2015
Excellent years: 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2006, 2011, 2012, 2016
France, South Rhône Valley, Château Pope Dry red top vintage: 1998, 2000, 2001, 2007, 2010, 2016
Excellent years: 1989, 1990, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2015, 2017
France Champagne-producing region Top sparkling vintages: 1996, 2008, 2012
Excellent years: 1982, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2009, 2013, 2014
Italy Piedmont Barbaresco dry red top vintage: 1982, 1989, 1990, 1996, 2001
Excellent years: 1985, 1988, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004

Do you know what is special about drinking martini?

Martini is the most exquisite cocktail

On the surface, a martini is a cocktail that can’t be simpler: only gin, vermouth and decorations in the iced glass. However, it is not an exaggeration to say that it is one of the most refined cocktails. People tirelessly seek to eliminate the “wetness” in wine. The sweet and soft Victorian “Old Tom” style gin was replaced by the heavier and more pungent “London Dry”
Dry)” style instead. Moreover, the vermouth it uses is getting drier. Finally, the “correct” ratio of dry gin and dry vermouth has become a seemingly endless topic. 1 of the second half of the 19th century The 1:1 ratio was replaced by the common 2:1 moderate dry ratio around 1910; decades later, the standard drinking method was super dry 5:1…After that, things started to get a little out of control, gin And Vermouth is hovering between 7:1 and 16:1 (the so-called Bone Dry Martini), and there will even be a staggering 25:1 (it seems that people are interested in continuing the proportional game indefinitely). Even so , Some people still complain to the bartender that there is too much vermouth in the wine.

Martini preparation techniques

Regarding its modulation techniques, people also hold different opinions. 007 insists on making his martini with a shaker (Shaken, not stirred), which is the wrong way to drink in the eyes of some bartenders. They think that shaking wine will dilute the strength of the wine and reduce the clarity of the wine. While the bartenders were arguing, Martini was already drunk by a scientist who loves the more serious, which triggered serious research on whether it is better to shake or stir. University of Western Ontario
University) Department of Biochemistry used experimental research and rigorous precision to four decimal places to prove that the shaken gin martini contains more antioxidants than the stirred one. Perhaps it is precisely because the martini formula is simple, the flavor of the ingredients appears more clearly, and the accuracy of the proportion is more important for the final taste formation, and it also makes it a wine that tests the bartender’s level: it is like a writing brush, the more Simple words are harder to write well. So about the entanglement caused by a glass of martini, there is still such a saying: people who walk alone in the wilderness often put a martini cocktail set in their backpack, so that when they get lost or feel lonely, they only need to make a glass Martini, someone must suddenly come out in anger-criticizing their practices for being too unorthodox. Veteran alcoholics are obsessed with its simplicity and strength, and dry martinis are considered the choice of those who “knowledge about wine”. In addition, the gin company’s marketing in the 1950s was also closely related to the popularity of martinis. The power of implantation and celebrity support in film and television works is unquestionable.

Which martini is good?

A very dry martini will naturally be regarded as a symbol of masculinity-for example, Hemingway, Churchill and Humphrey Bogart (a long list of European and American celebrities can be listed) must be deeply appreciated. So should I go to the bar and order a martini with dry soles? It is hard to say that the tastes of Europeans and Americans must be welcomed by the Chinese, and the taste standards of martinis are also changing with the times. Dry martinis emphasize the strong gin flavor of some gins, which may not be used by everyone; vodka is also common for martinis, but it may be too bland for some people. In fact, today’s martinis no longer blindly pursue dryness and strength, and there are more variants based on martinis than versions of the origin of martinis to meet the needs of different tastes. Asking the bartender to add enough vermouths to the wine is a good way to taste (not like drinking dry martinis is not a loss of face); in addition, the taste of gin also has a trend of diversification, not only Old Tom Gin has resumed production, and many “micro distillery” gins with different flavors are also emerging, constantly expanding the boundaries of gin. So choosing some gin with a softer style, less prominent gin, or with a more complex flavor may be another better way to try. Martini has become more personal, catering to different tastes. To order a martini, you need to make it clear to the bartender whether you want to use gin or vodka (as the base). Next, indicate the degree of “dry/wet” you want, and finally if you want to decorate with lemon zest instead of olives, then you also need to tell, or say “with a twist”. Under normal circumstances, the bartender may make a ratio of 5:1; if you order a dry martini, the bartender is likely to pour some vermouth in the glass on the inner wall of the glass, then pour it out, and then put the gin Or pour vodka into the glass. Dirty Martini is also a popular way to drink. In this case, you need to add some pickled olive juice to the wine, which increases the taste and dilutes the concentration-if you particularly like the taste of pickled olives; if you require gin and vermouth The ratio reaches 1:1, this way of drinking is called 50-50 Martini; if you ask for Perfect Martini, it does not mean that the taste of martini is perfect, but that half of the vermouth uses dry vermouth and half uses sweetness. think.

10 most popular cocktails

A drink is the key to the adult world. If you haven’t tasted drunkenness, and you haven’t tasted a little post-interaction, then your life hasn’t started yet, it can only be regarded as a trembling “girl student”.

Of course, as an independent woman, you should have the final say in order to go to the bar. Don’t give this “dangerous work” to your male companions, their taste buds and all kinds of “bad minds” may ruin your beautiful weekend.

Before drinking a glass elegantly, let’s choose “Wei” or “Indulgence” ourselves! In the face of “bar rookie”, we have given the following list, 10 most popular cocktails, there is always a glass that will please you.

MOJITO Mojito Ingredients: White rum, lime, lemon, white sugar, soda, mint, crushed ice Features: cool and refreshing

First of all! Tell the truth! You must pay attention to pronunciation. Fashion is not fashionable. It’s not just “more ink”, read with the teacher, Mo-Hee-Toe.

This cocktail is from Cuba and is one of the oldest cocktail varieties. The refreshing and cold taste is very suitable for summer, and it is a safer choice for cocktail rookies. The famous writer Hemingway was very fascinated by this wine during his stay in Havana, and Bond also drank this wine in “007: The Day To Die”, which shows that Mojito is very suitable for a free spirit.

If you are overwhelmed with alcohol, you can even choose “no wine”, it is still a good drink.

COSMOPOLITAN Cosmopolitan/Sihai Home Ingredients: Vodka, Cointreau, lingonberry juice, freshly squeezed lime juice, fresh orange peel Features: sweet and sour fragrance

This glass of wine is popular all over the world as a special wine for Carrie in “Sex and the City” and is Madonna’s favorite cocktail.

Cosmopolitan’s Chinese name is “Sihaiweijia”, which has a gypsy girl’s sexy. The sweetness of Cointreau blends with the sourness of lime juice and the fragrance of orange peel. This cocktail is very suitable for women. The orange-pink body and slender martini glass give this wine a high face value. Even if you don’t care about the wine, a graceful sip will add a lot to your style.

LONG ISLAND Long Island Iced Tea Ingredients: Vodka, White Rum, Gin, White Tequila, Lemon Juice, Orange Liquor, Syrup, Lemon Slice Features: Sweet and tasty, strong wine

In the bar, if a girl orders LONG ISLAND, it may attract the attention of friends, “What’s wrong? Stressed? Broken up? Yang Qianhua listened to more songs?”

“Long Island Iced Tea” does not contain tea, and is made of 4 kinds of base wines with an alcohol content of more than 40 degrees. If you are drunk, this is a very cost-effective cocktail that can quickly meet your needs. But if you don’t drink well, you must be cautious, because the cola and syrup in this wine subtly conceal the strong alcoholic taste, so this is a wine that plays a pig and eats tigers. The sweet taste makes people relax and vigilant. Unconsciously, “for a good night’s sleep”.

MARGARITA Ingredients: tequila, tangerine-flavored liquor, lime juice, coarse-grained salt, ice characteristics: rich aroma of tequila, just right acid and salty stimulation

Margarita is called “after the cocktail”. The cold wine glass, coarse salt and tequila, the rich and exciting and unpredictable taste seems to be flirting with a charming goblin.

However, this delicious cocktail comes from a sad story. Bartender Jean Durasa met the beautiful Mexican girl Margarita while traveling to Mexico and fell in love. However, when the two were hunting, Margarita unfortunately strayed and died in Jean’s arms. A few years later, Jean named this cocktail after his late girlfriend, using Mexican tequila as the base wine, lime juice is his sour heart, and the coarse salt at the mouth of the glass is his tears.

OLD-FASHIONED ingredients: Bourbon whiskey, bitter spirits, water, sugar cubes, ice cubes, lemon slices Features: bittersweet and sweet, rich whiskey aroma

This cocktail is made up of whiskey, bitters and sugar. It is usually decorated with a slice of lemon peel or orange peel. From the base wine to the cup shape to the color of the wine, it is full of nostalgic masculinity. It is the favorite drink of the actor Don Draper in the American drama “Mad Men”.

However, this wine is really OLD-FASHIONED, full of nostalgia. It should be a group of old Clara sitting and playing bridge drinking. And why do girls order this glass of wine? Maybe it’s for ordering this glass of wine to make the people around look sideways! There is no coolness to drink, and a halo of “people with stories” is automatically generated above the head.

PINA COLADA Coconut Grove Flavor Ingredients: White Rum, Black Rum, Pineapple Juice, Coconut Milk, Cherry, Pineapple Slices Features: Coconut fruit flavor is rich, full of tropical resort style

How happy is this glass of wine, just listen to the song named after it. Do you really want to take off your high heels and wear a straw skirt to twist it twice!

Pina ColadaKiwini Vaitai-Independently Bizarre

Pina Colada was born in Puerto Rico and is the country’s “national drink”. In Spanish, Pina Colada means “pineapple lush valley”. Friends who have only heard of lush flowers, now come to imagine a pineapple valley, does it feel very powerful?

This is a cocktail that is very suitable for drinking when you are on vacation by the sea. The cool and pleasant taste combined with beautiful white wine and tropical fruits. You can see Pina Colada dressed in various beautiful looks at the beach bars of major hotels. . Friendly reminder, coconut milk plus rum, this is not a low-calorie cocktail.

SINGAPORE SLING Singapore Commander Ingredients: Gin, Cherry Brandy, French Gallery Wine, Lemon Juice, Syrup, Soda Water, Lemon Peel, Cherry Features: Rich, sweet and sour taste, subtle herbal aroma

This is a feminine wine. In 1910, the bartender Yan Chongwen of the Raffles Hotel Singapore designed this wine specifically for female customers. Its taste has a complex level, and the unique aroma and healing effect of French Langjiu (not our Langjiu!) give it a mysterious oriental flavor.

The Singaporean ladies were very popular in the hot afternoon and ordered a Singapore Sling at the Raffles Hotel to cool off the heat and relieve fatigue. The gorgeous color of the wine and the face of the young lady with a small face are this tropical city. The most beautiful sunset scenery.

MAI-TAI beautiful ingredients: light rum, dark rum, orange peel liqueur, lemon juice, red pomegranate syrup, syrup, almond syrup Features: sweet and delicious, sunny feeling

If you work for a week and need some sweet stimulation to make your mood higher, MAI-TAI is a good choice.

If Pina Colada takes the passion and romance of the Caribbean, this cocktail created by California bartender Victor Begeron for two friends from Tahiti has both the cheerfulness of California sunshine and the innocence of Tahiti. The name of the cocktail comes from the Tahitian “maita’iro’a’ae” (meaning far away from the earth, intriguing joy). After being popular in California for many years, it appeared in the famous “Elvis” movie “Blue Hawaii”, and then became popular in the world.

MANHATTAN Manhattan Ingredients: Rye Whiskey, Sweet Metz, Angostura Bitter Wine, 1 Sweet Cherry, Lemon Peel Appropriate Features: A hint of bitterness in sweetness, a little medicinal fragrance

Like Old-Fashioned, this wine also has a strong sense of nostalgia in New York. It is a very popular cocktail in the social occasions of high society in New York.

The inventor of this wine is the mother of former British Prime Minister Churchill, socialite Jenny Jerome, was recognized as one of the most beautiful socialite at the time. In 1874, she hosted a celebratory reception for the newly elected governor of New York. The reception was held at the Manhattan Club. This cocktail specially designed for the reception was loved by the guests on the day of its launch and was quickly popular throughout the United States because of the success of the reception. This wine has a natural and successful atmosphere, especially suitable for semi-work social occasions.

DRY MATINI Dried Martini Ingredients: Gin, Vermouth, Vodka, Lemon Peel, Olives Features: Spicy and Stimulating

Finally, let’s finish with this glass of DRY MATINI called “Cocktail King”. This cocktail, invented by legendary bartender Jerry Thomas, has been loved by charming people since its birth in the late 19th century.

This is 007’s favorite wine and one of Churchill’s (why did you show up again?) favorite cocktail. You can also find it in close-ups of many movies. Its formula is simple, but it is a wine that checks the bartender’s level; it has a spicy taste, but it is necessary for people who are addicted to drink. In the words of Bond, “When you have drunk this kind of wine, you will be deemed to be you want.”

Although this is called a men’s cocktail, but women drink it has a sexy figure of a beautiful woman driving a jeep.

You should know the keywords of the wine list

Base Wine

The main ingredients of cocktails, usually used as base wines are brandy, gin, vodka, rum, whiskey and tequila.

Below, let’s popularize the most common base wine flavors: (make sure you understand at a glance)

Rum (Rum) Many feminine cocktails love to use rum as the base wine, there is a “tropical atmosphere”, that is sweet! Because it is a by-product of refining sucrose.

Vodka (Vodka) cocktails suitable for summer often use vodka as the base wine. It is colorless and transparent, as clear as water, and the prepared cocktails are often very pure. High alcohol content will produce a weak acid and spicy taste.

Brandy Brandy is a spirit, but it is distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice, so it will have a strong fruity flavor.

Gin Gin, also known as gin, generally has flavors of spices, herbs or fruits. Gin is the main flavor, and flavors such as lemon grass, cinnamon, ginger, citrus and coriander are also mixed.

Bourbon whiskey (Bourbon) produced in the United States Bourbon It is made from mixed grains, but the proportion of corn must be at least 51%, so Bourbon whiskey often has a distinct corn flavor. After aging in oak barrels, it will also have a distinct aroma of vanilla, caramel, honey and wood. The wine it makes is also more Man.

Scotch Blended Scotch whisky is brewed with grains, but Scotch whisky uses peat (Peat, a unique product formed in ancient swamp environment, often used as fuel) when brewed, so compared to other whiskies, it will With a clear smoky smell. Very manly…

Tequila

This is a strong and (quirky) fun (strange) base wine, it is brewed by the tropical plant agave heart, so that kind of herbal aroma plus spicy rich taste, you know.

Modifier

Choice and quantity control are where the bartender is. So it’s really not possible to mix two kinds of wine together to make a cocktail! A cocktail may have two or three kinds of spirits, and the liqueurs (Liqueur) added to the base wine are changed.

What is Creme de Cassis, Apricot Brandy, Kummel, Tia Maria, Crème de Cacao, Advocaat ), Bailey’s Irish Cream (Bailey’s Irish Cream)…… These inexplicable things can make the cocktail produce a rich taste.

Of course, in addition to wine, the change will also add something you can guess at a glance: such as fruit juice, fruit, mint and other vanilla…even cocoa powder, egg whites, skipping sugar (what are these ghosts?)

Flavoring Agent & Coloring Agent

There are two kinds of changers: taste medium and color medium. The former is used to adjust the taste, and the latter is used to make the cocktail show beautiful colors. This is easy to understand. When you look at the ingredients, you can guess its appearance and color. This is easy to understand. When you look at the ingredients, you can guess its appearance and color.

How is wine and chicken tail together?

Strictly defined, a wine made by mixing two or more wines is a “cocktail”. However, when you use wine as a song, have you ever thought about how “wine” and “chicken” are together? In fact, there is no official statement about the source of the cocktail. The two more interesting statements are-

Statement 1: During the American Revolutionary War, a general died in battle, and the general was deeply loved during his lifetime. Therefore, after his death, the subordinates “crowdfunding” the wife of the general who was good at winemaking and opened a bar in the military camp to help She makes a living.

In order to repay the soldiers’ care, the brave general’s wife sneaked into the enemy’s leader’s house on a dark night of the month, and grabbed the leader’s favorite rooster to prepare delicious dishes, and then collected all the good wines she had hidden. Mix it up and let the soldiers enjoy it. The soldiers happily put the rooster’s tail feathers in the wine glass to celebrate. The cocktail was born! (Innocent rooster…)

Statement 2: After the American Revolutionary War, in a bar in Kentucky, the United States often gathered a group of “cockfighting” drinkers. They discussed various interesting stories of cockfighting, and they kept adding wine, and finally the boss watched the wine. They were almost drunk, and they mixed the rest of the wine together and let the drinkers drink it for free. So there was the name of Cock (rooster) + Tale (story), and later tale evolved into tail (tail), and then the name of cocktail (Cocktail).

Teach you to mix like Steve Schneider

1 Communicate with your eyes. no matter when.


“Keep your head up and make eye contact with people. Whether you are wiping the bar, pouring ingredients into the glass, or shaking the wine. Let the guests know that you have seen them, and it is best to see them as soon as they enter the door. If you don’t forget to make eye contact, then even if they have to wait, they know that they will not be ignored. A sentence of “Sir, just right” can wait anxiously, because there is nothing more annoying than being ignored. It’s like going It’s frustrating to talk to a girl but she ignores me.”

2 Learn to mix wine quickly.


“The flow of the wine as it leaves the bottle, observe the balance of the wine in the blender, and finally taste the results, and believe in yourself. Don’t make mistakes; know that quick bartending is not easy, which is why Employees Only is one of the few homes still Stick to this bar. It is indeed more convenient to pour the measuring cups into the bartending and listen, but from my experience of twelve years, the quick bartending skills as a team, we made more than 182,000 cocktails last year, not yet Including golf, sip, beer and wine. Two workbenches, three bartenders, open 362 days a year, ten hours a day, which means that every four minutes when the bar is open, a cocktail is prepared. It can be said that through With solid and repeated training, you will be able to do it in half a year to a year. You can make the same cocktail 15,000 times during the year, and you can do it with your eyes closed. Your effort is worth it.”

3 Your relationship with guests is more than a quick transaction.


“I like to influence others in a positive way, regardless of whether the other party is a customer or a bartender. One of my favorite episodes is that once a man and a woman entered the bar and told me that they met at this bar, I gave them Mixing wine, now the two are married and are celebrating their wedding anniversary. To be a part of other people’s life. Even a tiny part will make you feel great. This job is an expansion of my love for others , Meaning far more than the bartender itself. It will continue in your previous life. Imagine what happens after I am over the age of an army bartender? If I run a bar, others want to work for me because they believe me , Like me. If they don’t like you, why would they be willing to work for you?”

Four glasses of wine, two minutes, $64. Four glasses of wine, two minutes, $64.


4 The wine is made for guests, not for yourself.


I have tasted every glass of my own wine, really every glass, including the cloudy martini I made. But no matter how good your bartending skills are, there will always be someone who will get rid of your cloudy Martini, because what you do does not meet his taste. So I always confirm what they want repeatedly. Bartending is not to look cool, or even to allow guests to enjoy. This is my principle. Act like a champion, like a winner, like a good bartender, and the cool feeling will naturally show up. Don’t always think about showing off skills. “

5 Overall, enjoy the process.


“Before starting work, we will give each other a hug, and then use the freshman of one of our bartenders to ask each other,’Are we going to take the girls home tonight?’ .”

6 If you are too serious, the service will be discounted.


“This industry is sometimes too serious. In New York from 2008 to 2010, the bartenders at that time made a big fuss about what people drink, they will say’No, this is what you should drink. Zhao Ke I will This, Zhao No, you have to drink that.’ Or tell you,’This is the right way to stir, that’s the right way to shake the wine.’Once everyone knows about bartending, it becomes’ Let’s seem to be the first to set the standard, and some people dare to let go of their hands and feet. It was improved in almost 2011, and it was then that we won the title of the world’s best cocktail bar. In fact, every There is a wife’s real bar. I can target five unreal bars and five excellent bars. I would rather go to a bar with bad wine but excellent service. After all, there is a choice of bottled beer.”

7 Don’t treat guests as students.


“The bartender can get a lot of information about different wines and different ways of bartending. Sometimes there is so much information that they forget that customers don’t know much about them and they are a little impatient with customers. So You have to step back and think that good wine can attract people, but only when you feel at home can you attract repeat customers.”

8Don’t pretend to be famous. Even if you are really famous.

Heavyweight bartender.”I’m just an ordinary person. I’m just a bartender, like the people who helped me. I will never feel that I’m superior. That’s not my attitude to do things. It’s really a pleasure to see you in the door. Shocked and happy. It is an indescribable feeling, it can be said to be humility. But in the end, from work at six in the evening to four in the morning, I am not a rock star at home, but the one who is ready to serve you next time People. This is my credo. I used to drink a lot when I was working, but now I will only start drinking at the end of the shift. Because when guests from all over the world come to Employees Only, they want to see the movie. Me, not a drunken me.”

9 Don’t do what you don’t want to do.


“When I was undergoing various rehabilitation treatments in the hospital because of a head injury, I felt very pitiful and very depressed. I put three titanium plates in my head and my brain was slightly injured. Because I don’t want to stay there, So everything is suddenly hopeless. If you can’t help yourself, you can’t exercise your ability. Bartending, remembering the price and formula, working with both hands, I think it helped me heal. I did what I loved for the first time , Leading to problems that are far from the previous ones. So, I hope all bartenders ask themselves,’What do I want from this job? Do I want to work for a brand, or do I want to have my own bar? I am now Is bartending to be a musician afterwards?’I don’t know my career plan now, but the sooner I understand it, the sooner I can set goals. At the same time, you have to maintain discipline and enjoy what you are doing .Be a good employee. Meet people who want to work for you. Establish a relationship with others, and you can go far.

Why more and more people like to hand-made coffee ?

Entering the cafe, the barista kindly asks you “drink Italian or hand punch?”, looking up at the menu. In addition to the familiar latte, cappuccino and other Italian coffee, I found a column next to it -“Hand-made coffee”. “What is Italian, and what are hand punches?” “What are the differently shaped utensils on the bar for?” “Kenya, Guatemala, Ethelbia Yega Xuefei, how to choose, drink it What does it taste like?”… A hundred questions were silently accumulated in my heart. (The guests next to you have finished ordering and sat down happily to drink coffee.) Penguin Jun knows that you want to ask these questions for a long time. This time, I want to talk to you about “what is hand-made coffee”, why more and more people are keen to explore the beautiful flavor, and even set up different utensils to enjoy the fun of making coffee at home. I hope that after reading the article, you can eliminate the sense of distance your opponent rushed before, and truly open the world of coffee. Believe me, you will find that drinking a delicious cup of coffee is so happy!

1 | Instant vs. Hand Brew: Why should brew coffee be filtered?

The 1+2, the slogan of “the dripping fragrance, the meaning is still unfinished”, which is necessary for staying up late in the student days… At that time, the understanding of coffee was fixed in coffee powder + hot water, and it will change out after stirring A cup of sweet “coffee” with milk flavor. Until I went to college, my roommate brought a packet of “coffee powder” by chance. I scooped a spoonful and added hot water to stir, but it didn’t dissolve! Not only is there a lot of coffee grounds left in the cup, it tastes bitter and astringent! (I thought it was weird at that time. Was this coffee powder broken? How could it not dissolve and it was difficult to drink! Looking back now, it was really too
young too simple) Because instant coffee is extracted from coffee extract, it can be directly dissolved in water. And what about the coffee we usually drink? As I said before, coffee beans are the seeds of coffee fruits, which need to go through a series of processing and roasting, and then use a grinder to grind the coffee beans into uniform and fine-grained coffee powder. The aroma and flavor contained in it can pass The water is released and becomes a drinkable coffee liquid. After the extraction is completed, the coffee grounds that are insoluble in water naturally lose their function! It is the same as making tea. After the beautiful substances in the tea are extracted, the tea must be filtered out, otherwise it will be unhappy if you drink it.

2 What is hand-made coffee?

The essence of hand-brewed coffee: extraction & filtration In order to drink clean coffee without residue, smart humans invented filter paper to separate coffee liquid from coffee residue. But then there was a problem. The filter paper needs something to support to better separate the coffee grounds from the coffee liquid. We call this device capable of carrying filter paper and coffee powder as “Filter Cup”. With a filter cup, filter paper, a one-handed pot, plus a bottom pot that can hold coffee liquid, the hand-punching equipment is basically complete! The filter supports the filter paper, pour the freshly ground coffee powder into the filter paper and pat it gently, then use the kettle to pour hot water into the filter paper containing the coffee powder: After the hot water and coffee powder are fully contacted, the beautiful ingredients After extraction, the coffee liquid is then separated from the coffee powder through the filter paper. Any coffee brewed in this way can be called “hand-made coffee”.

3 Why is hand brewing coffee so popular?

For me, the most important reason is of course delicious! Just use hot water to extract the beautiful substances in coffee beans, without adding anything else, this simple and direct brewing method, it is easier to drink the taste of coffee itself! The ever-changing coffee flavors brought by different varieties/different origins/different treatment methods are the reasons why more and more people are fascinated by hand-punching. A cup of delicious hand-made coffee is clean, balanced, rich in layers and has a distinct flavor. You can fully enjoy the personality of different coffee beans, African beans, sour and bright like the sunshine there; and Indonesian coffee beans have a strong aroma and low acidity. In addition, well-made, meticulous and elegant hand-punching pots, filter cups of various shapes and materials… The dazzling hand-punching utensils are just pleasing to the eye, revealing the goodness of the host taste. In the morning, if you can prepare a hearty breakfast for yourself and make a delicious cup of coffee, I believe that the good mood of the day will be lit up! Weigh the coffee beans, grind them into powder, and enjoy the happiness surrounded by the aroma. Wet the filter paper gently, pour the coffee powder into the pat, pat it into the hot water patiently, and finally filter it out of the cup. Hand punching makes people have a rare calm and concentration, how fast our fast-paced life needs healing~

4 In fact, it is not troublesome, anyone can play with hands!

Is it hard to make coffee yourself? actually not. If you are willing to spend 3 minutes making a pot of tea, then making a cup of coffee is not difficult. For example, the process of making tea can be as simple as a glass and hot water, or it can cover everything from bowls to scented cups and fair cups. The same is true for coffee. Hand punching is simple and scientific. To put it simply, as long as you have a good powder-to-water ratio, you can control the water flow and have a certain stability, thick or light, like bitter or sour, can be controlled by the coffee maker. As for appliances, if you feel that going out is too cumbersome to bring a bunch of appliances, then the ear-hanging bag only needs hot water and a cup to get it! “Hanging ear bag” can be understood as the most simple and simple “hand-made coffee”. The ear-hanging bag is itself a “filter paper”, and we often ignore the small ears that we forget to fold. It is a simple support (it must be wordy, drink the ear-hanging bag and remember to fold the ears and hang it on the cup), Add hot water and the coffee will be brewed quickly. Although the loss of freshness and flavor is inevitable, it is really too convenient. Speaking of science is because making coffee by hand is like an interesting experiment, constantly awakening your inner spirit of exploration. As your understanding of coffee gradually deepens, you want to understand the degree of grinding of coffee beans, water temperature, water quality, water flow, extraction time, and even the method and timing of water injection. Every small factor change will have an impact on the final flavor. . So, drink more and compare more practice, in order to make this cup of coffee in your hand more and more close to the heart.

The top 10 best champagne

The difference between champagne and sparkling wine

  1. Champagne is a region in France. In French, Champagne means champagne producing area. Only sparkling wines from the Champagne region have the right to be “champagne”. And this is protected by law. If there is a production area outside the Champagne region that dares to call itself Champagne, then the wealthy “Champagne” will send a strong legal team to charge you. So friends, it is not correct to see sparkling wine as champagne. Among sparkling wines, the price and price of champagne are the highest, which is closely related to the champagne’s complicated craftsmanship and higher quality. The sparkling wine has bubbles because it contains carbon dioxide. Some very cheap sparkling wines are made by manually adding carbon dioxide to the wine. Simply put, the gas is directly “hit” into the cheap wine. This is how carbonated drinks are made. This cheap sparkling wine usually starts with strong and large bubbles, but it quickly disappears. The general sparkling wine uses another method, called the secondary fermentation method in the tank, this method relies on the sealed wine tank or wine tank. Pour base wine (wine liquor produced after the first fermentation of grape juice) into a wine tank. The secondary fermentation of wine is carried out in the wine tank, producing bubbles (carbon dioxide). The “Champagne Brewing Method” used by Champagne is to perform secondary fermentation in the bottle. The carefully selected base wine (wine produced after the first fermentation of grape juice) is placed in a sturdy wine bottle, and some sugar and yeast are added. Then seal it with a wooden stopper. Yeast causes the liquor to ferment in the bottle for a second time, forming carbon dioxide (bubble) that dissolves in the wine and leaves some sediment. The reaction between these precipitates and wine, called yeast self-decomposition, makes wine particularly delicious. At the same time, the complex procedures of “shaking bottle” and “rehydration” are used to filter out the sediment of the wine to make the liquor clean and clear. The “champagne” wine made by the champagne method has more delicate bubbles and a more complex taste. This taste is more like a butter, cream bread, or dough-like taste, while the concentrated acidity and A slightly cold taste will make you really fall in love with champagne.
  2. Champagne brewing method is also used in Spain, so the price of CAVA is slightly more expensive than ordinary sparkling wine, and there is a certain guarantee in quality. Two: The 12 most famous champagne brands in the Chinese market 1. Champagne Moet & Chandon   

Beginning in 1743, Moet & Chandon carried success and endless charm, and won the reputation of “Imperial Champagne” for being loved by Napoleon I. For more than two centuries, Moet & Chandon has been the tribute of many European royal families. In 2009, it became the only designated champagne at the 81st Academy Awards ceremony. In China’s major supermarkets, you will find that as long as there is champagne, there are Mo Yue champagne, so the most influential champagne in China is Mo Yue champagne.

 TOP 10 BEST CHAMPAGNE

  1. Champagne Perrier-Jouet  This year’s Hurun Wealth Report shows that the favorite champagne brand of the Chinese rich is the Paris Champagne. Paris Flower Champagne has the reputation of “Champagne Princess”. The reason why Paris Flower Champagne has such a great influence in China is of course thanks to the famous Champagne Perrier-Jouet Cuvee Belle Epoque. The Paris Flower Champagne brand is owned by Pernod Ricard. After 2 centuries of ups and downs, the Paris Flower has already become a world-renowned champagne brand. The bright and elegant champagne charm and the chic anemone pattern bottle design all show the elegance of this champagne princess.
  2. mentioned champagne, everyone will definitely think of Don • Perignon Champagne. The Champagne King is named after Father Don Perignon. The priest of the Church of Saint Benedict was born the same day as King Louis XIV and died the same day. He spent almost his entire life in a wine cellar in Hautvillers, a small monastery in the south of the region. There are rumors that it was Don Perignon who invented champagne, so his portraits and statues hung everywhere in the Champagne area. In China, Don Perignon Champagne King is also well-known and a well-known brand for champagne lovers.
  3. Champagne G.H.Mumm Champagne G.H.Mumm is known as “the champagne of the king”. The prominent royal families in Europe, including Austria, Hungary, Belgium, the Netherlands, Prussia, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, all fell in love with the style of Mamm champagne. Today, Mam Champagne is still the official supplier of Queen Elizabeth II, and its bottleneck is also decorated with a royal certificate. It is precisely because of the connection with the royal family that Mamm Champagne is selling in the Chinese champagne market. Mam Champagne can be seen in major star hotels in China.
  4. Champagne Taittinger (Champange Taittinger)    Like the Moet and Champagne Champagne, it has a long history and distinguished status. Since the 1980s, Taiting Champagne has invited well-known contemporary artists to With his strokes, he once again opened an artistic door for champagne and art. This year, Taitingzhe Champagne signed a contract with FIFA to become the official designated Champagne wine for FIFA.
  5. Champagne Armand de Brignac   In a Champagne blind tasting competition organized by Fine Champange, the only champagne professional magazine in the world in 2009, there was a dark horse, with an average of 96 points A decisive trump card was scored, leaving behind big names such as Moyue and Princess Louis. This black horse is the Spade A Champagne. The most unique of Spades A Champagne is its bottle. Its unique gold bottle design is said to be inspired by a famous French spade fan who loves Spades A. This design is very gorgeous and extravagant, adding a lot to the luxurious temperament of Spade A champagne.
  6. Champagne Louis Roederer (Champagne Louis Roederer)    It can be said that Princess Louise Champagne is the only champagne in the world specially created for the Tsar. Tsar Alexander III of Russia loved champagne very much, but he was afraid that others would not know that the champagne he drank was a royal wine specially brewed by the winery for the Russian royal family. Therefore, since 1876, the Princess Louis Champagne winery has designed a unique champagne, which is packed in a special crystal bottle to highlight the difference between it and ordinary champagne in a glass bottle, and called it “” Crystal Champagne”.
  7. Champagne Krug    If the top luxury car is endorsed by “Rolls Royce”, who should be responsible for top champagne? “Cook Champagne” is a deserved candidate. It once enjoyed the reputation of “Rolls-Royce in Champagne”. Cook Champagne’s elegance, dignity and rareness make it a rare treasure for a few people. Of course, such rare wines are also the darling of experts: Cook Champagne is synonymous with top wines in the European and American industry media “Wine Analyst” and “Robert Parker Guide”.
  8. Champagne Veuve Clicquot (Campagne Veuve Clicquot)    Vagina Champagne originated in 1772. By 1775, Vagina Champagne creatively brewed the world’s first pink champagne. Since then, it has become a pink champagne brewing Standard. Regardless of scale or quality, Victory Champagne has now become one of the most important vineyards in the Champagne region. The most famous champagne in the Victory Champagne brand is La Grande Dame. It is the first champagne made in 1972 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Victory Champagne. It is the most famous champagne in the Victory Champagne brand.
  9. Champagne Laurent-Perrier (Champagne Laurent-Perrier)    France Roland Baiyue Champagne is a series of products under the French Roland Baiyue Champagne Group. Roland Park Hyatt champagne has become one of the most respected champagnes in the world. Since 2002, Roland Park Hyatt Champagne has become the official PGA (American Professional Golf Association) designated champagne and the only designated champagne at the Academy Awards.

What is whiskey classified?

Whiskey is distilled wine made from grains and aged in wooden barrels.

First, the raw material is cereals, such as barley. Correspondingly, it is fruit raw materials, such as wine, brandy (French Cognac in public recognition) and so on.

Secondly, distilled wine. Corresponding to brewing wine, such as beer, wine, Japanese sake and so on. Most distilled wines have higher alcohol content than most brewed wines.

Finally, most whiskeys need to be aged in wooden barrels. The corresponding ones are vodka, gin, etc. that are directly bottled without being put into wooden barrels and distilled (some of them need to be mixed).

Advanced: Here is a classification of Western spirits. White Liquor (brown wine) and Brown Liquor (brown wine), the former mainly refers to vodka, gin, rum, tequila, etc., the latter is mainly whiskey and brandy. In fact, there are more and more varieties of color in transparent wine.

Whiskey classification method 1: raw materials

The difference in raw materials has brought about a huge difference in the taste of whiskey, and it is also an important difference in the style of the production area that will be introduced later. In view of the status of the Scotch whisky industry, here we borrow some of the legal provisions of Scotland to get a quick introduction to the classification method.

Barley malt

Single Malt

Whisky distilled in a winery using only water and barley malt (Malted Barley) without adding any other grains.

This is the first choice for most advanced whisky lovers.

Single Grain

Whiskey produced from grain distillation of water and barley malt mixed (or not mixed) with germination treatment (or without germination treatment) in a winery.

Unlike malt, which has a more prominent personality, corn whiskey is mainly made of corn, and its aroma and taste are more moderate. Therefore, in most cases, grain whiskey will be used to blend with malt whisky for commercialization.

Blended

It is blended with at least one single malt whisky and at least one single grain whisky.

This is the most introductory category of whiskey for most wine tasters and the most famous and most advertised category on the market. If the general public is allowed to say that a whisky brand comes out, the first mention is that most of them cannot run out of this category.

Blended Malt

Whiskey blended from at least two single malt whisky distillery products.

Blended Grain

Whiskey blended from at least two single grain whisky distillery products.

Note that this is just the Scottish classification method, for the whisky raw material classification in other regions, analogy is sufficient.

Relatively speaking, a variety with a single type will emphasize more individuality, while a harmonious variety will pay more attention to balance. The blended varieties are less affected by one or two of the blended raw whiskeys, and are also a guarantee for stable production, so they can become the main varieties on the market.

It is more important to note that the raw material classification method cannot be used as a criterion for judging the price and even the quality of whiskey. If you encounter the two knives that try to use low-key and whiskey to show that you know how to drink, just a huh. Once it was difficult to understand, if you can understand why LV and Rolex did not lose brand influence because of the upsurge, then seeing whiskey experts still drinking blending varieties, maybe you should also be in awe of the blending whisky distillery that is carefully operated.

Whiskey classification method 2:Whiskey barrel

The concept of brown liquor (Brown Liquor) is mentioned above, and the main source of brown in whiskey is the wine barrels used for aging storage.

The wine barrel used for storing whiskey is made of oak (OAK), and the applicable wood is from North America or Europe. When you taste even a bottle of vintage wine (the concept will be covered shortly), know that this is just the tip of the iceberg where a bottle of whiskey story surfaced. The oak barrel where it once lay quietly, most of the raw materials come from 100 Old oak tree.

North American oak has moderate hardness and strength, is not easily penetrated, and is rich in vanillin.

European oak is harder wood with good elasticity and toughness, rich in carbolic acid and tannic acid.

Generally speaking, North American oak can bring more oak flavor to the wine body. My description is more masculine and more irritating; the European project brings more floral and fruity flavor to the wine body, more delicate and soft.

oak

oak

The thing of wooden barrels seems simple, and actually has various standards through the historical development of the industry. The small barrel makes the wine mature faster and evaporates faster (this requires some scientific knowledge, the relationship between volume and surface area). The small barrel has a volume of about 125 liters, and the large barrel can reach a huge size of more than 500 liters.

How to place wine barrels also affects temperature and ventilation, and it is also very knowledgeable. I won’t talk about it here.

In addition, the aging year marked on the wine bottle does not mean that it is aged in a wine barrel. Some whiskey varieties may be transferred to different wine barrels more than three times in order to add different flavors to the wine body.

Advanced: You may occasionally hear some whisky varieties mention bourbon barrels or sherry barrels, which are actually oak barrels. These barrels are mentioned because they can add different flavors to whiskey.

The oak barrel used for American Bourbon Whiskey will only be used once and then sold to Scotland and other places. Bourbon barrels will help increase the body’s light brown color, with vanilla-like sweetness and citrus flavor.

And the barrel used by Spain to transport (note that it is transported, not aged) sherry (a wine with brandy added) was used by the Scots to disguise tax avoidance (whiskey can be taxed higher than wine). After Shirley barrels have a unique taste, Shirley barrels are very popular. Shirley barrels will make the wine color reddish and add a strong fruity aroma.

Burning the inside of a wine barrel with fire

Whiskey classification method 3:Whisky Year and “Angel’s Share”

Whiskey bottles may be marked with two times, one is a four-digit Gregorian (Gregorian) year, and the other is one or two digits of the bottle’s aging time. This aging refers to the age of the wine body in oak barrels. If it is blended wine, it must be the year of the lowest age base wine used for blending. According to the laws of most countries, the word age (AGED) must be marked, and there is a minimum age limit for storage in oak barrels (you cannot say that AGED is put in oak barrels for ten months, but it is not a raw child).

Let’s go back to that four-digit Gregorian year. If it is relatively old, it may be the year of establishment of the winery. If it is more recent, look at the specific instructions, either the distilled year or the bottled year.

In most cases, the higher the price of the mature wine, the higher the price. This is caused by the most basic business rules。

First, the longer the storage time in the winery, the higher the storage space cost of the winery.

Secondly, the reason why oak barrels can add charm to the whiskey body is because it breathes. 0.5-4% of the raw material evaporation loss per year (this is still the data of high latitude, cold Scotland), of course, it must be included in the cost of the winery.

Therefore, the pricing of similar whiskies in the same winery will increase because of the aging year, but this does not mean that the high-year whiskey must be better than the low-year whiskey (you are the only criterion for determining the quality of whiskey). If you only stick to the vintage, then the winery will not have any incentive to strive for innovation.